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Every second of every day, data is being sent and received. Billions of data packets are processed by your company’s network every day. In fact, you received dozens of packets just to read this article, but the vast majority of us have no idea how this works. People have no clue as to what goes on behind the scenes to ensure data actually gets to the right device.
The key difference between hubs, switches and bridges is that hubs operate at Layer 1 of the OSI model, while bridges and switches work with MAC addresses at Layer 2 of the OSI model.
Certifications are the most common way in IT to prove you have the skills to solve various technical and business challenges. In this article, I'll address a range of skill sets. For each certification listed, I've included what the certification measures, the requirements to obtain it.
In 2013, Cisco released their Software Defined Networking (SDN) solution for the data center known as Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI). For many years, the networking industry has been asking for an approach to configuring networking devices more efficiently than having to individually configure each and every router and switch.
The purpose of Interior Routing Protocols (IGP), and routing protocols more generally, is to advertise the existence of destination networks. All protocols then have some method of picking what they would consider to be the best path and maintain the information. By...
What is Network Time Protocol (NTP)? Well, it’s a network protocol used to synchronize clocks between computing systems over a packet switched network. It’s been around since the mid-1980s and was developed by David Mills at the University of Delaware; it is one of the oldest protocols still around on the Internet. NTP replaced other time synchronization technologies that didn’t have some capabilities to adjust time based on location of the time source or time server relative to the receiver or adjusting to the variation of delay found on typical data networks.
Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is a protocol designed to go beyond what Network Time Protocol (NTP) can offer relative to accuracy. PTP is IEEE standard 1588 that can give local computing systems accuracy within the sub-microsecond range (such as microsecond, nanosecond or picoseconds) whereas NTP is within milliseconds or longer. PTP standard was first released in 2002 and known as 1588-2002. In 2008, the IEEE released a revised standard for PTP, known as 1588-2008, that improved the accuracy and precision of the protocol. It is also known as PTPv2 and is not backward compatible with the older version. PTP was developed for packet based network for control and measurement systems.
Learn everything you need to know about the new Cisco CCNA and CCNP Data Center curriculum and certifications. Take the traditional path or the accelerated path to achieve CCNA Data Center Certification. Understand the Design and Troubleshooting paths for CCNP Data Center certification. Understand the revised course requirements and content changes. Understand the certification exam availability for the new exams, the retirement date for the old exams, and the available migration paths if you have an uncompleted certification with some courses or exams completed.
One size does not always fit all. At times there’s a need to run more than one routing protocol and have more than one routing domain: multivendor shops, migration from one protocol to another, scalability issues of a single protocol, political or personal preference, production versus test networks, mergers, and acquisitions.
Routers and switches make up the bulk of the network infrastructure and are vulnerable to attack. In a previous article, I talked about some of the different ways of hardening your network devices. In this blog, I’d like to specifically examine the routing protocols used on the major Cisco network operating systems.