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RFC 2833 and DTMF Relay

Article | Aug. 12, 2009

Devices must send dual-tone-multi-frequency (DTMF) when a phone call is routed to an automated system. Automated attendant (AA), voicemail (VM), or interactive voice response (IVR) systems are some examples of the types of automated systems that can pick up phone calls.

Understanding RIP v2

Article | Aug. 05, 2009

So far, in our discussion of Router Information Protocol (RIP), we’ve discussed the basics and also verified and reviewed RIP version1. We stated that RIP version 1 is a classful routing protocol that used FLSM and sent it routing updates without the subnet mask.  In...

Basics of Understanding RIP

Article | July 30, 2009

RIP is a protocol that is used for routing IP networks. It was designed in the early 1980’s for communication between gateways (computers with two NIC’s). It is the oldest routing protocol used by the network industry and is considered by many to be inefficient or bo...

FTP vs. TFTP

Article | July 15, 2009

Recently we've been comparing using Telnet with Secure Shell protocol to allow remote access to a device such as a router or switch. Now, we're going to compare File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Trivial File Transfer protocol (TFTP) for a Cisco router or switch. These...

Static Routing

Article | July 14, 2009

You may have noticed that it’s the dynamic routing protocols that get all the glory. Since I like rooting (routing?) for the underdog, let’s talk about static routes! As you may recall, a router has three methods for learning a route. A route can appear in the routi...

Calculating VoIP Bandwidth

Article | July 08, 2009

When integrating a Voice over IP (VoIP) system into an existing network it is very important to have a good understanding of how much bandwidth is utilized for each call on the network. For most people, just starting out the bandwidth calculations can be a very daunt...

E.164 – The modern dial plan

Article | July 02, 2009

When we are addressing Voice over IP we need to remember that essentially we would like to reach customers over the PSTN or SS7 network. The only avenue to date to do this, is by using something called the telephone number. However, that number has undergone some cha...

Access Control Lists (ACLs) – Part 6

Article | June 23, 2009

As you may recall, we can use extended IP ACLs to filter packets based on source address, destination address, transport layer protocols, and other options, as follows: access-list 106 permit tcp host 1.2.3.4 host 5.6.7.8 eq telnet For a packet to be permitted by...

Access Control Lists (ACLs) – Part 5

Article | June 19, 2009

Having discussed general ACL rules and syntax, let’s now turn to the differences between standard and extended ACLs. As you might recall, numbered ACLs fall into several ranges: 1 – 99: Standard IP 100 – 199: Extended IP 1300 - 1999: Standard IP (expanded rang...

Printing PowerPoint Slides with Notes

Article | June 11, 2009

If you create presentations using the notes feature in PowerPoint, you probably have found yourself wanting to print multiple slides on one page (handouts) with the notes associated with those slides displayed on the same page. This layout can often help you better p...